Israelkritik - Umgang mit der deutschen Geschichte

Institutions
  • FB Psychologie
Publications
  Kempf, Wilhelm(2014): Human rights orientation and the assessment of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Human rights orientation and the assessment of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

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Based on a concept of human rights commitment that includes both a cognitive (rejection of human rights restrictions) and an affective component (concern for the victims of human rights violations), the present paper uses Latent- Class Analysis in order to differentiate different forms of consistent and inconsistent human rights orientations, and relates them to participants’ assessments of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The results of the study indicate that a consistent human rights commitment promotes pacifism, reduces moral Disengagement and counteracts anti-Palestinian as well as anti-Zionist and anti-Semitic attitudes. At the same time, however, it exerts pressure to take a position on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, it supports partisanship for the Palestinians, and it strengthens the tendency to dramatize foreign affairs and to call for action against Israeli policy. Nonetheless, it reduces the tendency to a one-sided attribution of guilt to Israel and decreases anti-Israeli attitudes that are directed against Jews in general and/or that tend to restrict the rights of the Jews.

Origin (projects)

Kempf, Wilhelm(2013): Antisemitismus und Israelkritik : Mythos und Wirklichkeit eines spannungsreichen Verhältnisses Wissenschaft und Frieden ; 31 (2013), 3. - S. 37-40. - ISSN 0947-3971

Antisemitismus und Israelkritik : Mythos und Wirklichkeit eines spannungsreichen Verhältnisses

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Gegenstand des Aufsatzes ist die Differenzierung zwischen verschiedenen Formen der Israelkritik. Unter Anwendung moderner Item-Response Modelle auf die Daten des Anti-Semitism and the Criticism of Israel (ASCI) Surveys wird gezeigt, dass antisemitischer und nicht-antisemitischer Israelkritik zwei gegensätzliche Motivationssysteme zugrundeliegen. Während antisemitische Israelkritik generell vorurteilsbelastet ist und nicht nur mit antisemitischen, antizionistischen und israelfeindlichen sondern auch mit islamophoben Einstellungen einhergeht, ist nicht-antisemitische Israelkritik durch Pazifismus und Menschenrechtsengagement motiviert und weist jegliche Form von antisemistischen, antizionistischen, israelfeindlichen und/oder islamophoben Einstellungen zurück. Auch Kritiker, deren Israelkritik ursprünglich nicht antisemitisch motiviert ist, laufen jedoch Gefahr in antisemitische Vorurteile abzugleiten.

Origin (projects)

  Kopf-Beck, Johannes(2013): Der Holocaust im Film : Dokumentation des Untersuchungsmaterials einer quasiexperimentellen Studie

Der Holocaust im Film : Dokumentation des Untersuchungsmaterials einer quasiexperimentellen Studie

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Filmischen Aufarbeitungen des Holocaust wurde wiederholt vorgeworfen, kontraindizierte Effekte zur Folge zu haben. Aufbauend auf dieser theoretischen Kritik wird ein Kodiermanual zur Inhaltsanalyse von TV-Dokumentationen und Filmen über den Holocaust vorgestellt. Dieses untergliedert sich in vier Bereiche zu (1) Quellen und Perspektiven, (2) Bezug zur Opferseite, (3) Bezug zur Täterseite und (4) formale Kriterien. Anschließend werden die Ergebnisse einer Inhaltsanalyse von sechs Filmausschnitten über den Genozid an den Juden während des NS-Regimes berichtet.

Origin (projects)

  Kempf, Wilhelm(2013): Documentation of the Anti-Semitism and the Criticism of Israel (ASCI) survey

Documentation of the Anti-Semitism and the Criticism of Israel (ASCI) survey

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The present paper documents the questionnaire and results of a survey in Germany, with data collected during June – November 2010. Using probabilistic item response models, the survey analyzes the structure of anti-Semitic, anti-Zionist, anti-Israeli and anti-Palestinian attitudes and studies how they are distributed in the German population. It reconstructs the mental models according to which participants make meaning of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, it differentiates between different forms of Israel-criticism and it investigates the effect of participants’ human rights orientation on anti-Semitic, anti-Zionist, anti-Israeli and anti-Palestinian attitudes, as well as moral disengagement and pacifism, knowledge about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and the way how participants position themselves to the conflict. Due to the complexity of the survey and the limited space available in peer-reviewed journals, it will be published in a series of articles, each of them focusing on theory, methodology and results of another aspect of the study – and even there, it will not be possible to report all of the statistical details that are reported here in an uncommented way.

Origin (projects)

  Kempf, Wilhelm(2012): Anti-Semitism and criticism of Israel: A methodological challenge for peace research Journal for the Study of Antisemitism ; 4 (2012), 2. - S. 515-532

Anti-Semitism and criticism of Israel: A methodological challenge for peace research

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One of the merits of anti-Semitism research is its sensitivity to the various ways in which anti-Semitism may manifest itself beyond traditional prejudices against Jews. This has led to distinctions among various facets of modern anti-Semitism that range from traditional prejudice (manifest anti-Semitism) via secondary anti-Semitism and latent anti-Semitism to anti-Zionism and anti-Semitic criticism of Israel. One of the shortcomings of anti-Semitism research, however, is its neglect of alternative motivations that may lead to statements that sound as though they could contain anti-Semitic content. This is particularly problematic in the investigation of the relation between anti-Semitism and criticism of Israel.<br />Correlation studies alone – and even experimental studies demonstrating that attitudes critical of Israel increase when anti-Semitism is stimulated – cannot give a satisfying solution to this problem. Participants who unconditionally support Israeli policy will certainly not harbor long-held anti-Semitic attitudes, and dyed-in-the-wool anti-Semites will not sympathize with Israeli policy. Nor can factor analysis, which is often applied to study the relation between the various facets of anti-Semitism, give a satisfactory answer.<br />This farewell lecture reflects on the methodological deficits of these approaches and introduces latent class analysis as an alternative methodology. An application to data from a recent survey in Germany indicates that manifest, secondary and latent anti-Semitism are simply different expressions of one and the same anti-Semitic attitude. Criticism of Israel and anti-Zionism can, on the other hand, be motivated by other factors, such as a peace orientation and/or human rights considerations. Unlike correlation studies, Latent class analysis not only demonstrates this, but also distinguishes between different groups of participants and thus makes it possible to discriminate between those who criticize Israel because of anti-Semitic attitudes and those who do so for other reasons.

Origin (projects)

Kempf, Wilhelm(2012): Peace journalism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the German media and the German public. Bulletin du Centre de Recherche Français à Jérusalem ; 23 (2012)

Peace journalism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the German media and the German public.

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The present paper discusses the potentials and limitations of Peace Journalism (PJ) and exemplifies them with the results of (1) a recent survey of the mental models (individual frames) according to which Germans interpret the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, (2) a comparative analysis of the German press coverage of the second Intifada and the Gaza War, and (3) an experimental study on how the German public copes with the frames that are offered by the media.<br />According to the author’s understanding, PJ is not a variant of advocacy journalism, but a means to fulfil the quality norms of journalism in cases of conflict and crisis. Most journalists try to do their best to produce quality journalism. Since they share the same beliefs as the rest of society, however, in an antagonistic situation they often end up with one-sided coverage that does not live up to these norms. The only way out of this dilemma is to learn to accept facts before they are interpreted. Accordingly, the first rule for journalists who aim to facilitate such a process of social learning is to mistrust the plausible, and the second rule is, to ask the right questions.<br />In order to accomplish this, journalists need to refrain from the media’s focus on negative news, they need to refrain from a superficial balancing of their reports, and they need to avoid over-simplification. If they succeed, they will find an audience that appreciates their coverage as less biased than conventional war reporting. If news recipients already side with one party or the other, however, they may reject PJ as biased in favor of the opposing party. Nonetheless, in the long-run PJ may contribute to a society’s co-construction of reality in a more beneficial and productive way.

Origin (projects)

Kempf, Wilhelm(2012): Scorebildung, klassische Testtheorie und Item-Response Modelle in der Einstellungsmessung Item-Response-Modelle in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung / Kempf, Wilhelm; Langeheine, Rolf (Hrsg.). - Berlin : Regener, 2012. - S. 32-54. - ISBN 978-3-936014-29-7

Scorebildung, klassische Testtheorie und Item-Response Modelle in der Einstellungsmessung

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Obwohl Einstellungsfragebögen nur selten dem Rasch-Modell genügen, wird der Summenscore in der Einstellungsmessung routinemäßig angewendet, was zu einem erheblichen Verlust an diagnostisch verwertbarer statistischer Information führen kann. Auch in der Latent-Class-Analyse, im Mixed-Rasch-Modell und/oder im Hybrid-Modell führt die Wahl einer geringeren Klassenzahl, wie sie vom BIC gegenüber dem AIC favorisiert wird, zu einem gewissen Informationsverlust.<br />Ausgehend von einem allgemeinen testtheoretischen Modell, welches sowohl die Klassische Testtheorie als auch die Item-Response-Modelle mit einschließt, werden in dem vorliegenden Aufsatz Indizes zur Beurteilung der Relevanz des jeweiligen Informationsverlustes entwickelt.<br />Eine Anwendung auf die Messung antisemitischer Einstellungen zeigt, dass die Verwerfung des Rasch-Modells zugunsten der LCA zwar eine Abkehr vom Konzept einer quantitativen Einstellungsdimension impliziert, andererseits jedoch genaueren Aufschluss über Struktur und Dynamik der jeweiligen Einstellung liefert. Gerade das, was die Klassische Testtheorie als Messfehler vernachlässigt, kann ggf. entscheidende diagnostische Information enthalten.

Origin (projects)

  Thiel, Stephanie(2011): Konstruktion und Evaluation des Untersuchungsmaterials für eine experimentelle Studie der Interaktion zwischen mentalen Modellen und Medienframes des Israelisch-Palästinensischen Konflikts

Konstruktion und Evaluation des Untersuchungsmaterials für eine experimentelle Studie der Interaktion zwischen mentalen Modellen und Medienframes des Israelisch-Palästinensischen Konflikts

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Der israelisch-palästinensische Konflikt ist in Deutschland in mancherlei Hinsicht von besonderem Interesse. Auch die Medien berichten regelmäßig darüber. Inwieweit lassen sich nun Rezipienten durch die Berichterstattung beeinflussen? Um herauszufinden, welche Interaktionen zwischen medialen Frames und individuellen Frames entstehen, wurde 2010 ein Experiment durchgeführt. Als Treatment dienten sechs Zeitungsartikel. Wichtig waren bei ihrer Herstellung vor allem ihre Qualität und Vergleichbarkeit. Dieser Aufsatz beschreibt das Vorgehen bei der Texterstellung und evaluiert Güte und Vergleichbarkeit des Treatments.

Origin (projects)

  Kempf, Wilhelm(2011): Peace Journalism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the German press and the German public

Peace Journalism, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the German press and the German public

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The present paper discusses the potentials and limitations of Peace Journalism (PJ) and exemplifies them with the results of (1) a recent survey of the mental models (individual frames) according to which Germans interpret the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, (2) a comparative analysis of the German press coverage of the second Intifada and the Gaza War, and (3) an experimental study on how the German public copes with the frames that are offered by the media.<br />According to the author’s understanding, PJ is not a variant of advocacy journalism, but a means to fulfil the quality norms of journalism in cases of conflict and crisis. Most journalists try to do their best to produce quality journalism. Since they share the same beliefs as the rest of society, however, in an antagonistic situation they often end up with one-sided coverage that does not live up to these norms. The only way out of this dilemma is to learn to accept facts before they are interpreted. Accordingly, the first rule for journalists who aim to facilitate such a process of social learning is to mistrust the plausible, and the second rule is, to ask the right questions.<br />In order to accomplish this, journalists need to refrain from the media’s focus on negative news, they need to refrain from a superficial balancing of their reports, and they need to avoid over-simplification. If they succeed, they will find an audience that appreciates their coverage as less biased than conventional war reporting. If news recipients already side with one party or the other, however, they may reject PJ as biased in favor of the opposing party. Nonetheless, in the long-run PJ may contribute to a society’s co-construction of reality in a more beneficial and productive way.

Origin (projects)

Funding sources
NameProject no.DescriptionPeriod
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft976/08no information
Further information
Period: 20.10.2008 – 19.10.2011