TP 5 Light regulation of carbon fixation in diatoms
- FB Biologie
|(2013): High light acclimation in the secondary plastids containing diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is triggered by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool Plant Physiology ; 161 (2013), 2. - S. 853-865. - ISSN 0032-0889. - eISSN 1532-2548||
High light acclimation in the secondary plastids containing diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is triggered by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool
In diatoms, the process of energy-dependent chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (qE) has an important role in photoprotection. Three components are essential for qE: (1) the light-dependent generation of a transthylakoidal proton gradient; (2) the deepoxidation of the xanthophyll diadinoxanthin (Dd) into diatoxanthin (Dt); and (3) specific nucleus-encoded antenna proteins, called Light Harvesting Complex Protein X (LHCX). We used the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to investigate the concerted light acclimation response of the qE key components LHCX, proton gradient, and xanthophyll cycle pigments (Dd+Dt) and to identify the intracellular light-responsive trigger. At high-light exposure, the up-regulation of three of the LHCX genes and the de novo synthesis of Dd+Dt led to a pronounced rise of qE. By inhibiting either the conversion of Dd to Dt or the translation of LHCX genes, qE amplification was abolished and the diatom cells suffered from stronger photoinhibition. Artificial modification of the redox state of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool via 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and 5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone resulted in a disturbance of Dd+Dt synthesis in an opposite way. Moreover, we could increase the transcription of two of the four LHCX genes under low-light conditions by reducing the PQ pool using 5-dibromo-6-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone. Altogether, our results underline the central role of the redox state of the PQ pool in the light acclimation of diatoms. Additionally, they emphasize strong evidence for the existence of a plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signaling mechanism in an organism with plastids that derived from secondary endosymbiosis.
|(2012): Redox regulation of carbonic anhydrases via thioredoxin in the chloroplast of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Journal of Biological Chemistry ; 287 (2012), 24. - S. 20689-20700. - ISSN 0021-9258. - eISSN 1083-351X||
Redox regulation of carbonic anhydrases via thioredoxin in the chloroplast of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Thioredoxins (Trxs) are important regulators of photosynthetic fixation of CO(2) and nitrogen in plant chloroplasts. To date, they have been considered to play a minor role in controlling the Calvin cycle in marine diatoms, aquatic primary producers, although diatoms possess a set of plastidic Trxs. In this study we examined the influences of the redox state and the involvement of Trxs in the enzymatic activities of pyrenoidal carbonic anhydrases, PtCA1 and PtCA2, in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The recombinant mature PtCA1 and -2 (mPtCA1 and -2) were completely inactivated following oxidation by 50 μm CuCl(2), whereas DTT activated CAs in a concentration-dependent manner. The maximum activity of mPtCAs in the presence of 6 mm reduced DTT increased significantly by addition of 10 μm Trxs from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTrx-f2 and -m2) and 5 μm Trxs from P. tricornutum (PtTrxF and -M). Analyses of mPtCA activation by Trxs in the presence of DTT revealed that the maximum mPtCA1 activity was enhanced ∼3-fold in the presence of Trx, whereas mPtCA2 was only weakly activated by Trxs, and that PtTrxs activate PtCAs more efficiently compared with AtTrxs. Site-directed mutagenesis of potential disulfide-forming cysteines in mPtCA1 and mPtCA2 resulted in a lack of oxidative inactivation of both mPtCAs. These results reveal the first direct evidence of a target of plastidic Trxs in diatoms, indicating that Trxs may participate in the redox control of inorganic carbon flow in the pyrenoid, a focal point of the CO(2)-concentrating mechanism.
|Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft||648/09||no information|
|Period:||01.07.2009 – 30.06.2012|