Self-compatibility and auto-fertility are likely to promote establishment and persistence of plants in novel environments, but empirical evidence is scarce. Therefore, three studies are proposed. (1) To test whether invasiveness of alien plant species is hampered by pollen limitation, we will experimentally supplement pollen on ten con-familial triplets of native, non-invasive alien and invasive alien species in central Europe. (2) To test whether self-compatible and auto-fertile plant species are globally more invasive, we will create and analyse a quantitative database on self-compatibility and auto-fertility. (3) To test whether novel environments can induce plastic changes in self-compatibility and auto-fertility, we will assess these characteristics under ambient and elevated temperatures, as predicted for the future, for six con-familial triplets of native, non-invasive alien and invasive alien species. Overall, these studies will provide important insights in the role of plant reproductive characteristics for establishment and persistence in novel environments, and how novel environments may affect these plant reproductive characteristics.