INVEDUC: Investing in Education in Europe: Attitudes, Politics and Policies

Beschreibung

Das Projekt "Investing in Education in Europe: Attitudes, Politics and Policies" (INVEDUC) wird der Frage nachgehen, welche Art von Bildungspolitik Bürgerinnen und Bürger in acht ausgewählten europäischen Ländern bevorzugen. Zu diesem Zweck wird eine groß angelegte Meinungsumfrage durchgeführt, die die Präferenzen der Bürger hinsichtlich der Höhe von Bildungsausgaben, der Verteilung auf unterschiedliche Bildungsbereiche und der Steuerung (Governance) von Bildungssystemen abfragt. In der zweiten Projektphase steht die Frage im Mittelpunkt, inwiefern und auf welche Weise die Präferenzen der Bürgerinnen und Bürger Eingang in den politischen Prozess finden. Spielen die Wünsche der Bürger für politische Akteure überhaupt eine Rolle oder dominieren organisierte Interessen? Gibt es Unterschiede in der Verarbeitung der Präferenzen je nach Land oder Bildungssektor? Das Projekt erweitert somit unser Verständnis über die Zusammenhänge zwischen Bildungs- und Sozialpolitik sowie über den Einfluss von Wählerpräferenzen im politischen Prozess.

Institutionen
  • FB Politik- und Verwaltungswissenschaft
Publikationen
    Busemeyer, Marius R.; Lober, Dominik (2020): Between Solidarity and Self-Interest : The Elderly and Support for Public Education Revisited Journal of Social Policy ; 49 (2020), 2. - S. 425-444. - Cambridge University Press (CUP). - ISSN 0047-2794. - eISSN 1469-7823

Between Solidarity and Self-Interest : The Elderly and Support for Public Education Revisited

×

Proceeding population aging might fuel generational conflicts about the distribution of welfare state resources in the future, but the existing evidence on the extent of generational cleavages in attitudes towards the welfare state is mixed. We argue that these mixed findings are partially related to an underestimation of trade-offs on the level of individual preferences. Using novel data from a survey experiment conducted in eight Western European countries, we show that age-related self-interest is an important determinant of social policy preferences. When elderly respondents are confronted with hypothetical cutbacks in pensions, they are much less likely to support additional education spending. However, we also find evidence for a mediating effect of social trust: high-trusting elderly individuals are more likely to support education spending – contrary to their narrow self-interest – than low-trusting elderly.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

  Busemeyer, Marius R.; Lergetporer, Philipp; Woessmann, Ludger (2018): Public opinion and the political economy of educational reforms : a survey European Journal of Political Economy ; 53 (2018). - S. 161-185. - ISSN 0176-2680. - eISSN 1873-5703

Public opinion and the political economy of educational reforms : a survey

×

In the political economy of education policy, interactions between policymakers and public opinion can create discrepancies between political awareness and action. While a large literature studies public opinion on different aspects of the welfare state, research has only recently started to investigate the public’s attitudes towards education policy. We survey this emerging literature with a particular focus on public preferences for education spending in different sociodemographic subgroups, policy trade-offs, support for specific education reforms, and the importance of information for public preferences. While the available evidence is multifaceted, there is some general indication that citizens place high priority on education policy, show substantial willingness to reform, and are responsive to information and adequate reform designs.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

    Garritzmann, Julian L.; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Neimanns, Erik (2018): Public demand for social investment : new supporting coalitions for welfare state reform in Western Europe? Journal of European Public Policy ; 25 (2018), 6. - S. 844-861. - ISSN 1350-1763. - eISSN 1466-4429

Public demand for social investment : new supporting coalitions for welfare state reform in Western Europe?

×

Social investment has recently received much attention among policy-makers and welfare state scholars, but the existing literature remains focused on policy-making on the macro level. We expand this perspective by studying public opinion towards social investment compared to other welfare policies, exploiting new public opinion data from eight European countries. We identify three latent dimensions of welfare state preferences: ‘social investment’; ‘passive transfers’; and ‘workfare’ policies. We find that social investment is far more popular compared to the other two. Furthermore, we identify distinct supporting groups: passive transfer policies are most supported by low-income, low-educated people, by individuals leaning towards traditional social values and by those subscribing to left-wing economic attitudes. Social investment policies are supported by a broad coalition of individuals with higher educational backgrounds and left-libertarian views from all economic strata. Workfare policies are most popular with high-income individuals and those subscribing to economically conservative and traditional authoritarian values.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

    Neimanns, Erik; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Garritzmann, Julian L. (2018): How Popular Are Social Investment Policies Really? : Evidence from a Survey Experiment in Eight Western European Countries European Sociological Review ; 34 (2018), 3. - S. 238-253. - ISSN 0266-7215. - eISSN 1468-2672

How Popular Are Social Investment Policies Really? : Evidence from a Survey Experiment in Eight Western European Countries

×

The concept of the social investment welfare state has received a lot of attention and support both from academics and policymakers. It is therefore commonly assumed that policies such as investing in education or family services would also receive significant support from the mass public. While there are some indications of this, existing comparative surveys of public opinion usually do not take into account how citizens perceive and react to policy trade-offs, i.e. how they respond when forced to prioritize between different types of social policies, which is more realistic given budget constraints. This article presents original data from a representative survey of public opinion in eight Western European countries, studying how support for social investment policies changes when additional spending on these policies would have to be financed with cutbacks in other parts of the welfare state. The central findings are that citizens generally dislike being forced to cut back one type of social spending to expand another, but there is a significant degree of variation across individuals and policy fields. Material self-interest and ideological predispositions as well as their interaction help understanding differences in the acceptance of these trade-offs. The findings have important implications for the political viability of social investment policies. Political parties aiming to expand social investment in a context of fiscal austerity are confronted with different and distinct electoral constraints and challenges given the respective preferences of their electorates.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

    Busemeyer, Marius R.; Garritzmann, Julian L.; Neimanns, Erik; Nezi, Roula (2018): Investing in education in Europe : Evidence from a new survey of public opinion Journal of European Social Policy ; 28 (2018), 1. - S. 34-54. - ISSN 0958-9287. - eISSN 1461-7269

Investing in education in Europe : Evidence from a new survey of public opinion

×

Public opinion research has found that increasing the investment in education is generally very popular among citizens in Western Europe. However, this evidence from publicly available opinion surveys may be misleading, because these surveys do not force respondents to prioritize between different parts of the education system or between education and other social policies, nor do they provide information about citizens’ willingness to pay for additional investment in education. To address these deficiencies, we conducted an original, representative survey of public opinion on education and related policies in eight European countries. Our analysis confirms that citizens express high levels of support for education even when they are forced to choose between education and other areas of social spending. But not all educational sectors enjoy equally high levels of support: increasing spending on general schooling and vocational education is more popular than increasing spending on higher education and early childhood education. Furthermore, we find that citizens are, in fact, willing to pay additional taxes in order to finance investment in education, at least in some countries and for some sectors of the education system.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

    Busemeyer, Marius R.; Garritzmann, Julian L. (2017): Academic, vocational or general? : an analysis of public opinion towards education policies with evidence from a new comparative survey Journal of European Social Policy ; 27 (2017), 4. - S. 373-386. - ISSN 0958-9287. - eISSN 1461-7269

Academic, vocational or general? : an analysis of public opinion towards education policies with evidence from a new comparative survey

×

Education policy is a salient topic both in political debates and in the scholarly literature. Still, the study of individual policy preferences on education policy has received little scholarly attention, mostly because existing comparative surveys provide only very crude measures on education policy. To address this research gap, we conducted a representative survey of public opinion on the details of education policy in eight Western European countries. This article, first, presents analyses of these data, focusing on people’s preferences for public expenditure on education relative to other social policies as well as its distribution across different education sectors (early childhood and pre-primary education, general schools, vocational education and training, and higher education). In contrast to existing surveys, our survey forces citizens to prioritize between different policy areas and education sectors. We investigate determinants of individual preferences, focusing particularly on self-interest, ideological norms and institutional feedback effects. We find that individual educational background, partisan ideology and having children are significantly associated with variation in preferences. Furthermore, we find tentative evidence for self-undermining institutional feedback effects.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

    Busemeyer, Marius R.; Neimanns, Erik (2017): Conflictive preferences towards social investments and transfers in mature welfare states : The cases of unemployment benefits and childcare provision Journal of European Social Policy ; 27 (2017), 3. - S. 229-246. - ISSN 0958-9287. - eISSN 1461-7269

Conflictive preferences towards social investments and transfers in mature welfare states : The cases of unemployment benefits and childcare provision

×

This article explores potential cleavages and conflicts between political support coalitions of social investment versus classical social transfer policies. To that extent, we analyse international survey data from the European Social Survey (ESS) for 21 European countries. Our central finding is that different welfare state beneficiary groups perceive and react negatively to increased government involvement in policy fields from which they do not benefit themselves: single parents are more likely to oppose government support for the unemployed when long-term replacement rates in the unemployment benefit scheme are high. Vice versa, the unemployed are less likely to support the public provision of childcare services if the latter is already well-funded. This finding has implications for the study of welfare states in general because it implies that in mature welfare states, political conflicts may be less about the welfare state as such, but about the distribution of welfare state services and benefits between different groups of beneficiaries.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

    Busemeyer, Marius R.; Garritzmann, Julian L. (2017): Public opinion on policy and budgetary trade-offs in European welfare states : evidence from a new comparative survey Journal of European Public Policy ; 24 (2017), 6. - S. 871-889. - ISSN 0143-814X. - eISSN 1469-7815

Public opinion on policy and budgetary trade-offs in European welfare states : evidence from a new comparative survey

×

In the wake of the ‘Great Recession’, welfare states have entered a new phase of austerity. Simultaneously, new social risks and the rise of the knowledge economy fuel new demands on the welfare state. We analyse how demands for social investment policies – particularly education – come into conflict with budgetary concerns, using new survey data on individual-level preferences in eight European countries. Paying particular attention to fiscal and budgetary trade-offs, we find that social investments are generally very popular, but as soon as realistic budget constraints are added, public support drops considerably. The largest drop occurs when social investments would be financed with cutbacks in social transfers rather than higher taxes or higher public debt levels. Furthermore, when studying the determinants of preferences, we find that in the era of permanent austerity distributive conflicts within welfare states exhibit a different political dynamic than conflicts about the size of the welfare state.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

Busemeyer, Marius R. (2017): Education and skills for inclusive growth Reframing Global Social Policy : Social Investment for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth / Deeming, Christopher; Smyth, Paul et al. (Hrsg.). - Bristol, UK : Policy Press, 2017. - S. 189-212. - ISBN 978-1-4473-3249-7

Education and skills for inclusive growth

×

Policies about education and skill formation occupy a central place in the social investment paradigm (Morel et al, 2012: 2). Policymakers and scholars alike emphasise the potential of education to contribute to a more egalitarian society by supporting the labour market integration of young people as well as to boost the productive potential of the labour force in service-oriented knowledge economies (see, for example, Bonoli, 2013; Hemerijck, 2013; Morel et al, 2012; Vandenbroucke and Vleminckx, 2011). In many ways, the social investment model of the welfare state can be regarded as the renewal of the old social democratic promise of wedding the economic power of free market capitalism with some form of redistribution via the welfare state. However, as has been extensively described elsewhere (Hemerijck, 2012; Morel et al, 2012), the social investment model is also …

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

  Busemeyer, Marius R. (2017): Public opinion and the politics of social investment The uses of social investment / Hemerijck, Anton (Hrsg.). - Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2017. - S. 358-367. - ISBN 978-0-19-879048-8

Public opinion and the politics of social investment

×

Busemeyer, Marius R.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

  Neimanns, Erik (2017): [Introductory chapter:] Public opinion and social Investment : How political-institutional context shapes support and opposition towards expanding childcare Public opinion and social investment : How political-institutional context shapes support and opposition towards expanding childcare / Neimanns, Erik. - Mikrofiche-Ausgabe. - Konstanz, 2017. - S. 1-83

[Introductory chapter:] Public opinion and social Investment : How political-institutional context shapes support and opposition towards expanding childcare

×

Social investment policies are generally considered to be widely popular among the public and policymakers alike as they are expected to generate social and economic benefits, and to create political payoffs for governments implementing such policies. However, empirically, we observe strong and persistent variation across countries in their design of social investment policies. This variation presents an important empirical puzzle, given the postulated positive returns associated with such policies. Focusing on early childhood education and care as a central element of social investment, I argue in this theoretical contribution that once we take into account the country-specific political and institutional context, the popularity of social investment should not be taken for granted. Contingent on who benefits from expansive childcare policies there can be a substantial potential of conflict in public attitudes between different societal groups. Building on theories of policy feedback, I elaborate the concept of perceived relative policy payoffs. How individuals perceive the costs and benefits associated with childcare policies can attenuate or amplify the potential of conflict in public attitudes towards expanding childcare. If an expansion of childcare comes at the cost of some groups in society and if reforms benefit only more narrowly defined groups, preferences are likely to be more conflictive and the political viability of expansive reforms appears more uncertain. The framework developed in this paper has implications for theories of policy feedback and the politics of social investment. Furthermore, it suggests that instead of a convergence towards a fully fletched paradigmatic social investment welfare state, we are likely to observe persistent variation across countries in their design of social investment policies.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

Busemeyer, Marius R. (2015): Social investment, skills and inequality : hard choices in education and welfare state policies The future of welfare in a global Europe / Marin, Bernd (Hrsg.). - Farnham : Ashgate, 2015. - S. 241-266. - ISBN 978-1-4724-6308-1

Social investment, skills and inequality : hard choices in education and welfare state policies

×

Busemeyer, Marius R.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

  Busemeyer, Marius R. (2015): Skills and inequality : partisan politics and the political economy of education reforms in Western welfare states

Skills and inequality : partisan politics and the political economy of education reforms in Western welfare states

×

Skills and Inequality studies the political economy of education and training reforms from the perspective of comparative welfare state research. Highlighting the striking similarities between established worlds of welfare capitalism and educational regimes, Marius R. Busemeyer argues that both have similar political origins in the postwar period. He identifies partisan politics and different varieties of capitalism as crucial factors shaping choices about the institutional design of post-secondary education. The political and institutional survival of vocational education and training as an alternative to academic higher education is then found to play an important role in the later development of skill regimes. Busemeyer also studies the effects of educational institutions on social inequality and patterns of public opinion on the welfare state and education. Adopting a multi-method approach, this book combines historical case studies of Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom with quantitative analyses of macro-level aggregate data and micro-level survey data.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

    Busemeyer, Marius R.; Iversen, Torben (2014): The politics of opting out : explaining educational financing and popular support for public spending Socio-Economic Review ; 12 (2014), 2. - S. 299-328. - ISSN 1475-1461. - eISSN 1475-147X

The politics of opting out : explaining educational financing and popular support for public spending

×

In this paper, we address two empirical puzzles: Why are cross-country differences in the division of labour between public and private education funding so large and why are they politically sustainable in the long term? We argue that electoral institutions play a crucial role in shaping politico-economic distributive coalitions that affected the original division of labour in education financing. In proportional representation systems, the lower and middle classes formed a coalition supporting the establishment of a system with a large share of public funding. In majoritarian systems, in contrast, the middle class voters aligned with the upper income class and supported private education spending instead. Once established, institutional arrangements create feedback effects on the micro-level of attitudes, reinforcing political support even among upper middle classes in public systems. These hypotheses are tested empirically both on the micro level of preferences as well as on the macro level with aggregate data and survey data from the ISSP for 20 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

    Busemeyer, Marius R. (2014): Trade-Offs Between Social Investment and Passive Transfers in the New Welfare State : New Political Coalitions in European Welfare States?

Trade-Offs Between Social Investment and Passive Transfers in the New Welfare State : New Political Coalitions in European Welfare States?

×

In the wake of the global economic and fiscal crisis, welfare states are now entering a new phase of austerity. At the same time, new social risks related to single parenthood or care for the elderly lead to new demands and expectations vis-à-vis the welfare state. This paper engages in an analysis of how these competing demands come into conflict with each other by using a new and original dataset on individual-level attitudes and preferences towards social investments and passive social transfers in eight European countries. I find strong evidence for citizens’ dislike of trade-offs. When confronted with the reality of trade-offs between different parts of the welfare state, citizens are less likely to support additional social investment in education, in particular when they would have to be financed by cutbacks in social transfers such as pensions. I also find evidence for the implication of the “new politics” school that in the era of retrenchment, distributive conflicts within existing welfare states exhibit a different political dynamic compared to the large-scale conflict about the scale and size of the welfare state. In particular, membership in particular welfare state constituency groups is a more significant determinant of individual preferences, whereas for redistributive preferences more broadly defined large-scale cleavage structures indicated by socio-economic position and partisan ideology are more important.

Forschungszusammenhang (Projekte)

Mittelgeber
Name Kennziffer Beschreibung Laufzeit
Europäische Union471/13
Weitere Informationen
Laufzeit: 01.05.2013 – 30.04.2018
Link: Projekthomepage