Funktion von Emotionen in der Entwicklung und im Ablauf prosozialer Handlungen

Description

Abstract: Hier wird die Funktion von Emotionen für prosoziales Verhalten und die Veränderung dieser Funktion im Laufe der Entwicklung bei Kindern untersucht.
Weitere Ziele sind, mögliche interindividuelle und situationsspezifische Differenzen in der Art und Ausprägung

  • von Emotionen und im prosozialen Verhalten zu erklären,
  • die Stabilität von Emotionen und prosozialem Verhalten im Entwicklungsverlauf, sowie
  • Entwicklungsbedingungen für Ausprägung und Entwicklungsverlauf von Emotionen und prosozialem Verhalten zu untersuchen.

In kombinierten Längs- und Querschnittstudien wurden Kinder aus vier Altersgruppen (2, 3, 5 und 8 Jahre) und ihre Müttern untersucht. Darüber hinaus wurden Kinder aus verschiedenen Kulturen in Bezug auf die Rolle von Emotionen für prosoziales Verhalten untersucht. Datenquellen sind neben Fragebögen und Interviews vor allem quasiexperimentelle Interaktionssituationen, die über Verhaltensbeobachtung ausgewertet werden. Erste Befunde zeigen deutlich überindividuelle Muster sowie individuelle Differenzen im Entwicklungsverlauf, in der prosozialen Motivation und in der Funktion von Emotionen für prosoziales Verhalten. Dabei können Emotionen eine hemmende oder eine aktivierende Funktion für prosoziales Verhalten haben. Die Ergebnisse belegen die Rolle von Empathie im Unterschied zu Distress und die Rolle von sozialen Kognitionen (u.a. Selbstkonzept) für Kinder verschiedenen Entwicklungsalters und verschiedener Kulturen (Japan, Indonesien, Malaysia, Israel).

Im Zusammenhang mit dem Projekt "Entwicklung von Selbst- und Emotionsregulation" (siehe Projektliste) stellt sich die Frage, ob und inwieweit die Selbstregulation a) die Zusammenhänge zwischen Emotionen, altruistischen Intentionen und prosozialem Verhalten und b) die Entwicklung solcher Zusammenhänge erklären kann.

Institutions
  • FB Psychologie
Publications
    Trommsdorff, Gisela; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; Mayer, Boris(2007): Sympathy, distress, and prosocial behavior of preschool children in four cultures International Journal of Behavioral Development ; 31 (2007), 3. - S. 284-293

Sympathy, distress, and prosocial behavior of preschool children in four cultures

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This study examined emotional responding (sympathy and distress) and prosocial behavior as well as their relations across four cultures in a specific context. Preschool children (N = 212) from two Western cultures, Germany and Israel, and two South-East Asian cultures, Indonesia and Malaysia, participated in this study. Children s emotional reactions and prosocial behavior were observed when interacting with an adult in a quasi-experimental situation. Results showed that children from the two South-East Asian cultures, as compared to children from the two Western cultures, displayed more self-focused distress and less prosocial behavior. Across cultures, a positive relation between sympathy and prosocial behavior and a negative relation between self-focused distress and prosocial behavior were found. The strengths of these relations were moderated by culture. These results are discussed with regard to their cultural meaning in the specific experimental situation as well as to general culture-specific characteristics.

Origin (projects)

    Volland, Cordelia; Trommsdorff, Gisela(2003): Mütterliche Feinfühligkeit und die Entwicklung von mitfühlend-prosozialem Verhalten bei Vorschulkindern : eine Beobachtungsstudie Zeitschrift für Entwicklungspsychologie und Pädagogische Psychologie ; 35 (2003), 1. - S. 2-11

Mütterliche Feinfühligkeit und die Entwicklung von mitfühlend-prosozialem Verhalten bei Vorschulkindern : eine Beobachtungsstudie

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This study deals with the question of the relation between a mother s responsiveness and the development of sympathy (empathy) as well as prosocial behavior in childhood starting from an attachment theoretical background. Altogether, 46 pairs of mothers and their daughters were examined cross-sectionally and longitudinally at two respectively three points of measurement. In order to assess mothers responsiveness, each mother-daughter pair participated in a videotaped interaction situation for about half an hour. Furthermore, each child was observed in a standardized interaction situation with respect to emotional and prosocial reactions. The results showed that for the 2-year old girls, the mothers responsiveness tended to be positively related to the prosocial behavior of the child and negatively related to the distress of the child. There were no significant results for the 3- and the 5-year old girls. The results for the longitudinal samples of the 5-year-olds clearly showed the positive influence of mothers responsiveness when the children were 2 years old on their socio-emotional development 3 years later. It is discussed whether specific experiences exert an influence only at specific times in development, and on specific psychological functions for a limited time

Origin (projects)

    Kienbaum, Jutta; Trommsdorff, Gisela(1999): Social development of young children in different cultural systems International Journal of Early Years Education ; 7 (1999), 3. - S. 241-248

Social development of young children in different cultural systems

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Ninety-six 5-year-old girls and boys and their mothers (n = 87) participated in a cross-cultural study on prosocial behaviour in Germany and the former USSR. Each child was observed interacting with a playmate who appeared to be sad. The mothers' educational belief systems were examined on the basis of:(i) a semi-projective instrument (So-Sit) depicting everyday conflicts between mother and child; (ii) an interview on a recent conflict. The intensity of prosocial behaviour was higher in German girls than in German boys or Russian girls. More Russian boys than girls showed at least some kind of prosocial behaviour. Russian mothers described their handling of conflicts as more harmonious than German mothers, whereas sex differences occurred within each culture. The results are discussed with regard to the impact of different child-rearing belief systems in individualistic versus collectivist cultures on the social behaviour of children.

Origin (projects)

  Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; Trommsdorff, Gisela(1998): Japanese and German mother-child interactions in early childhood Japan in transition: Social and psychological aspects / Trommsdorff, Gisela; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; Kornadt, Hans-Joachim (Hrsg.). - Lengerich : Pabst Science, 1998. - S. 217-230

Japanese and German mother-child interactions in early childhood

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The goal of this contribution is to describe some characteristics of mother-child relationships in Japan and Germany including consequences for child-rearing practices and children's development. In contrast to Germany. in Japan a strong emotional bond between mother and child, the encouragement of amae-behavior. maternal sensitivity, and responsiveness is assumed to influence the child's socio-emotional development through internalization of these specifics. Empirical results of an observational study including German and Japanese mothers and their 2-year-old girls confirmed cross-cultural differences of maternal sensitivity and related children's characteristics. The results of this study illustrate some of the theoretically assumed culture-specific features of mother-child relationships in Japan.

Origin (projects)

Funding sources
NameProject no.DescriptionPeriod
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaftno information
Further information
Period: 01.03.1991 – 28.02.2011