DEEPCAT: Degradable Polyolefin Materials Enabled by Catalytic Methods
- FB Chemie
|(2023): Biodegradable High‐Density Polyethylene‐like Material Angewandte Chemie International Edition ; 62 (2023), 6. - e202213438. - Wiley. - ISSN 1433-7851. - eISSN 1521-3773||
We report a novel polyester material generated from readily available biobased 1,18-octadecanedicarboxylic acid and ethylene glycol possesses a polyethylene-like solid-state structure and also tensile properties similar to high density polyethylene (HDPE). Despite its crystallinity, high melting point (Tm=96 °C) and hydrophobic nature, polyester-2,18 is subject to rapid and complete hydrolytic degradation in in vitro assays with isolated naturally occurring enzymes. Under industrial composting conditions (ISO standard 14855-1) the material is biodegraded with mineralization above 95 % within two months. Reference studies with polyester-18,18 (Tm=99 °C) reveal a strong impact of the nature of the diol repeating unit on degradation rates, possibly related to the density of ester groups in the amorphous phase. Depolymerization by methanolysis indicates suitability for closed-loop recycling.
|(2022): Mechanistic Insights into Ni(II)-Catalyzed Nonalternating Ethylene-Carbon Monoxide Copolymerization Journal of the American Chemical Society ; 144 (2022), 33. - S. 15111-15117. - American Chemical Society (ACS). - ISSN 0002-7863. - eISSN 1520-5126||
Polyethylene materials with in-chain-incorporated keto groups were recently enabled by nonalternating copolymerization of ethylene with carbon monoxide in the presence of Ni(II) phosphinephenolate catalysts. We elucidate the mechanism of this long-sought-for reaction by a combined theoretical DFT study of catalytically active species and the experimental study of polymer microstructures formed in pressure-reactor copolymerizations with different catalysts. The pathway leading to the desired nonalternating incorporation proceeds via the cis/trans isomerization of an alkyl-olefin intermediate as the rate-determining step. The formation of alternating motifs is determined by the barrier for the opening of the six-membered C,O-chelate by ethylene binding as the decisive step. An η2-coordination of a P-bound aromatic moiety axially oriented to the metal center is a crucial feature of these Ni(II) catalysts, which also modulates the competition between the two pathways. The conformational constraints imposed in a 2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl moiety overall result in a desirable combination of disfavoring ethylene coordination along the alternating incorporation pathway, which is primarily governed by electronics, while not overly penalizing the nonalternating chain growth, which is primarily governed by sterics.
|(2021): Closed-loop recycling of polyethylene-like materials Nature ; 590 (2021). - S. 423-427. - Springer Nature. - ISSN 0028-0836. - eISSN 1476-4687||
dc.contributor.author: Häußler, Manuel; Eck, Marcel; Rothauer, Dario; Mecking, Stefan
|(2020): Photodegradable branched polyethylenes from carbon monoxide copolymerization under benign conditions Nature Communications ; 11 (2020), 1. - 3693. - Nature Publishing Group. - eISSN 2041-1723||
Photodegradable branched polyethylenes from carbon monoxide copolymerization under benign conditions
Small amounts of in-chain keto groups render polyethylene (PE) photodegradable, a desirable feature in view of environmental plastics pollution. Free-radical copolymerization of CO and ethylene is challenging due to the formation of stable acyl radicals which hinders further chain growth. Here, we report that copolymerization to polyethylenes with desirable low ketone content is enabled in dimethyl carbonate organic solvent or under aqueous conditions at comparatively moderate pressures <350 atm that compare favorable to typical ethylene polymerization at 2000 atm. Hereby, thermoplastic processable materials can be obtained as demonstrated by injection molding and tensile testing. Colloidally stable dipersions from aqueous polymerizations form continuous thin films upon drying at ambient conditions. Extensive spectroscopic investigation including 13C labeling provides an understanding of the branching microstructures associated with keto groups. Exposure of injection molded materials or thin films to simulated sunlight under sea-like conditions results in photodegradation.
|Laufzeit:||01.10.2019 – 30.04.2024|